The “green transition” aims to replace internal-combustion-engine vehicles with electric vehicles (EV), equipped with batteries. It also aims to replace the production of carbonised energy (coal and gas power plants) with non-carbon production sources (wind and solar coupled with batteries). This transition involves intensive use of “critical minerals”. Lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese and graphite are crucial for producing batteries. Rare earths are essential for permanent magnets in wind turbines and EV motors. Power grids need huge amounts of copper and aluminium.